Canine Body language

Canine Body Language

Canine body language chart

Canine body language

Canine body language is a language understood by dogs across the globe.  Yet even though few of us are fluent in doggy body language, most of us can tell the difference between a friendly dog and an unfriendly one as the dog seems to get the message across with very little difficulty.  It is as easy to sense the aura of a confident, relaxed and easygoing dog as it is to observe specific behaviours and body postures. Such dogs fairly exude warmth and friendliness, head held high with a big doggy smile, gambolling gait and curved tail wagging the dog’s rump.  Similarly, one can literally feel the tension emanating from a dog that is not friendly, head lowered, ears flattened, piercing stare, teeth bared and growling, hackles raised along the back, stiff-legged and tail held high, straight, stiff and usually vibrating.
It is hard to live with a dog for even a few days without learning a wide vocabulary of his body language.  Most owners have a fairly firm grounding on how a dog acts when he is happy, confident, friendly, deferential, fearful, or aggressive.  In fact, most dog owners have successfully compiled a comprehensive and descriptive doggy dictionary of body language covering much of the dog’s behavioural repertoire, with sound interpretations for each posture.

Doggy Feelings

Most people’s interest in dog behaviour and body language focuses on their desire to gain insight into the dog’s emotions, feelings and preferences: to get a better idea of how the dog is feeling and what it would like to do.  Most owners care for their dogs and so they care about how they are feeling.  They want to know whether their dogs are contented or if they are upset.  It adds warmth to the soul to empathize with another individual and especially so with another species.  Also, it is just plain fascinating and heart-warming to watch a dog attempt to communicate with its eyes, furrowed brow and maybe a few ear twitches that for example would indicate he would like to have dinner earlier on Sundays, that he would like to go outside to take a leak, that he has lost squeaky hedgehog under the bed or perhaps that he would like to be asked to snuggle up on the couch.  These are the delights of sharing life with a dog.
For some, learning about dog language has little if anything to do with interpreting the dog’s feelings and emotions.  Instead, the interest in body language is for predicting bad behaviour and devising different means of punishment.  Whether the dog is upset is of secondary significance; the prime concerns appear to be whether or not the dog will bite and how to punish it in some ersatz wolfy way.  Ironically the continued manhandling and bullying (abusive human body language) is the major reason why the dog was upset and felt like biting in the first place.
A rudimentary interest in body language to predict whether or not the dog will bite certainly makes sense for those professions who deal with numerous adult dogs of unknown disposition.  However, the predictive value of body language is not as reliable as most think, largely because many body cues may have a variety of meanings and because fearful, rambunctious and uneducated dogs are more likely to bite than those that are aggressive.  In fact, most growly dogs don’t bite whereas some dogs appear to bite without warning.

Ambiguous Behaviour

It is not always true that a dog’s actions necessarily mirror his intentions.  Whereas we may easily observe and quantify a dog’s behaviour, we can only hazard a guess as to his feelings and intentions.  This is not to say that dogs are intentionally deceitful, double-dealing or deceptive.  Duplicity is after all a quintessential human foible. Rather, many dog body postures and vocalizations simply have a variety of meanings. For example, a growl may be a threat, or it may signify frustration, fear, lack of confidence, or learned helplessness.  Alternatively, a growl may be an invitation to play or it may be a learned communication that has very little to do with underlying emotions.  Some dogs growl as a solicitation to play, some growl as a request to be petted and some will growl if you try to stop petting them.  Obviously, the dog’s growling quickly becomes a learned behaviour because it has been invariably (albeit unintentionally) reinforced by the owner playing or petting the dog.  Growling is one of the most misunderstood vocalizations in the doggy dictionary, especially in some breeds, which seem to growl, or “talk” about every conceivable topic including the weather.
On the other hand, characteristically friendly behaviours may have alternative unfriendly interpretations.  A dog may bare its teeth as a submissive grin or as a threat.  A dog may paw you as a sign of friendly appeasement and deference in greeting or he may pin you with straightened forearms as a threat.  A dog may sidle up to you for company or as a spatial manoeuvre.  A dog may bring you a present, or it may proffer a “gift” as a test to see if you dare try to take it away and all of us know a wagging tail signifies a happy friendly dog, right?  Well certainly a high frequency, large amplitude wag augurs well for a happy social encounter but there are several different types of tail wag.  For instance, it is not uncommon for a dog to wag his tail furiously when barking and lunging at another dog.  Similarly, a large amplitude, slow frequency cat-like tail swish means the dog really doesn’t like you and a high frequency, small amplitude vibration at the tip of the dog’s perpendicularly held tail, generally signals the animal is extremely tense and stressed and about to react.


Other signs of stress may also have alternative simpler explanations.  For instance, whereas excessive scratching and urine marking are usually signs of low-level stress, itchiness might be caused by a flea and frequent urination may follow a good sniff and frolic with the female dog next door.  When a dog yawns, he may be tired.  More likely though, he is mildly stressed.  Similarly, baulking, slumping down, and rolling-over may suggest the dog is tired, or it may reflect increasing levels of underlying stress in training stemming from the dog’s confusion and the owner pushing him too far too fast.  The dog acts helpless and eventually the owner stops bugging him and leaves him in peace thus reinforcing the dog’s act of helplessness.  The dog may now learn to act helpless as a ploy to stop training at other times.  Some dogs even growl out of learned helplessness.  The poor dog just wants the bullying to stop and usually growling does the job.  Sometimes though, the growling is erroneously perceived as stubbornness and dominance and so the bullying increases until eventually and inevitably, the dog growls for real!
The interpretation of ambiguous cues can be difficult at times and often depends on context.  Sometimes, quite subtle atmosphere cues help provide the answer.  For example, a protruding tongue, a brief paw raise or even an obvious play bow would all signify the playful intentions of subsequent behaviours, such as growling and chasing.
If you miss the interpretive atmosphere cue, ask the dog “how he is feeling” by instructing him to come, sit, lie down, and rollover.  If the dog does not come, if he freezes, baulks, cowers, or runs away, usually you are in trouble.  But if the dog comes quickly when requested, he is advertising that he is friendly and pro-social.  Of course, rolling-over is the penultimate sign of doggy deference so what more could we ask for?  Also, worthy of note, he is demonstrating compliance.  In fact, he is being willingly and happily compliant.  A prompt response by the dog is good evidence that the owner is in control.
When a dog promptly (and happily) comes, sits, lies down, and rolls over when requested, the dog is demonstrating compliance and the owner is in control.  This is a simple but revealing test if ever you are confused concerning your dog’s feelings or emotions.  The above procedure also helps rebuild confidence in a dog that is upset.  If the dog concentrates on responding promptly to all four requests, most likely he will stop growling before completion.  Welcome to the wondrous magic of counter-conditioning.
With ambiguous cues, as with any doggy behaviour, the important questions are: 1. Do you think your dog likes you? (Or, do you have an adversarial relationship?) and 2. Can you control the dog’s behaviour?  For example, if a growly dog will shush and settle down on request, it is unlikely the dog is growling because he is aggressive.

Growly dogs

What if you have a lot of difficulty stopping the dog from growling?  Are we dealing with the dreaded dominant dog?  An aggressive cur, an alpha leader of the pack planning to take over the family today and tomorrow, the world?  Most likely not. Characteristically growly and blustery dogs tend to have limited experience and are insecure of there social standing and so usually resort to bluff and protracted threats. (Not too dissimilar from people really.)  Often the dog may growl incessantly to add major emphasis to a minor point.  Most overtly aggressive dogs are all bark and no bite. i.e. “If you really have it, you don’t need to flaunt it.”  Indeed, a truly confident dog is a rather cool and relaxed customer who very rarely resorts to lengthy threats let alone prolonged blustery bluffs as he doesn’t need to.  Instead the threat is subtle and the follow up is immediate, short, and sharp.

The Quiet Type

Basically, most dogs have two bona fide reasons to bite: 1. Because they are dogs and that’s what dogs do and 2. Because by and large, people are not very nice to them.
When dogs are upset or frightened, they don’t call a lawyer, or write a letter of complaint, they simply growl and bite.  Ironically, in the rare instances when a (usually) fearful dog does follow through, he is often accused of unpredictably biting without provocation, without warning and without reason.  In reality though, there were most certainly many good reasons for the dog to bite and he most certainly gave numerous warnings, even though the warnings may have been too subtle for most human observers.
Many dogs do however, bite with little threat or warning, but this has very little to do with aggressiveness.  On the contrary, the vast majority of dogs bite because they are fearful, frightened, unsocialised, and/or lack confidence.  A bite might be expected if the dog were cringing or snapping and lunging, but often the dog’s standoffish demeanour is the only overt warning.  And of course an unsocialised sleeping dog may bite if disturbed or frightened.  Other dogs bite due to uncontrolled rambunctiousness.  The dog may be in a decidedly happy frame of mind and is only doing what he did as a puppy because no one taught the puppy dog that unsolicited play biting was unacceptable.  Now the adolescent dog’s playfulness is out of control and he hurts people.  Thus a dog may bite with nary a growl.  Indeed, the biting dog may be playfully wagging his tail!
There is an additional, quite insidious reason for a dog to bite without warning. Originally the dog would growl whenever he was upset.  Although people heard the growl, they did not listen to what the dog was saying.  The dog was upset but no one paid heed, instead they punished the dog for growling.  The dog now has two reasons to be upset, the original reason and the fact his owner is angrily bullying him and so the dog growled more.  Unfortunately the level of punishment was increased until it effectively inhibited the dog from growling.  The dog no longer growled, but he was still upset, in fact, very upset. Now we have the equivalent of a time bomb without the tick.  The dog is doubly upset but no longer shows it because the owner systematically punished him for trying to communicate his feelings.  By all means instruct a growling dog to shush but ALWAYS investigate and attempt to resolve the underlying cause.

The Quest for the (Un) Natural Punishment

Some misguided people’s interest in dog body language is limited to their quest to devise so-called “natural” ways to punish a dog.  For example, to employ stare downs, scruff shakes and alpha rollovers in an attempt to punish a dog in the same manner a top dog might reprimand a lower-ranking individual, or a she-wolf might chastise a cub.  This approach is really too silly for words and an insult to the dog’s intelligence. Nonetheless, such tabloid pseudo-science obviously appeals to some types even though it may be a little thin on logic and scientific backing and often, next to ineffective.  All of this rigmarole takes place under the guise of training.  If it were not so abusive, it would be laughable.
The very concept that one has to manhandle a dog to gain his respect is just plain wrong and as potentially dangerous as it is ludicrous.  What if a child tried to manhandle a large dog?  Should the poor dog object, no doubt he would be punished or surrendered to a rescue and likely euthanized.  Why assume such an adversarial and combative relationship with an animal?  Why treat our best friend like our worst enemy?
Surely, any punishment is an indication the dog has not yet been trained effectively otherwise the dog would no longer misbehave and therefore no longer require punishing.  Any punishment should prompt the owner/trainer to go back to step one and retrain the dog preferably using different methods (since the previous techniques obviously did not work that well).  Repeated punishments however are a blatant advertisement of a trainer’s incompetence.  The punishment-oriented “training” method has obviously not worked at all because the dog continues to misbehave, (or rather, to act in a manner which it has not yet been taught is unacceptable).  I think we are talking about a bad teacher here, not a bad dog.
And just what is it with these campy she-wolf impersonations?  Some people are just itching to grab a pup by the scruff and roll it over pinning it to the ground under the guise of training?  It’s just an excuse to bully and frighten puppies and dogs under the misassumption that this is how dogs do it in the wild.  This borders on full-blown lycanthropy whereby the “trainer” feels he/she has been transformed into a wolf and so administers wolfy punishments.  Soon these people will go the whole hog (or dog) and resort to dressing up in doggy suits (with moveable ears and waggy tails) to muzzle-bite puppies on gaudy television shows such as Trainer Gladiator, Owners Gone Wild or Puppy Survivor.  Or perhaps, they will even resort to urine marking in their futile quest for virtual-reality, olfactory communion.  I am sure no dog in his right mind is even remotely duped into believing that his owner is a wolf, a top dog, or a postpartum bitch. It really is far too silly for words.
The vital flaw in this lycanthropic fiasco is that when trainers cite the supposed dominant behaviour of alpha wolves, top dogs and bitches, they actually give an accurate description of insecure, middle-ranking males, the annoying blustering of little furry sacs of testosterone.  They have utterly overlooked the true subtlety of dog behaviour and body language and completely failed to notice how a truly confident dog can put down a lower-ranking transgressor at fifty paces with a mere glance.  A true top dog uses mental control (not physical domination) to prompt respect and active appeasement in lower-ranking individuals. Perhaps we should learn from this.

Human Body Language

With all the abusive silliness in “training,” no wonder many dogs become upset.  In fact I am continually amazed by the unreserved patience and tolerance of most pet dogs.  Of course the dog feels ill at ease with the incessant mindless, physical manhandling, bullying, and other grotesque human body language.  All too often, the so-called “treatment” is the cause.  In reality, we will never know for sure what a dog is thinking or how it feels, simply from observing behaviour.  Instead, the interpretation of the dog’s feelings has to transcend mere clinical and objective observation and instead we have to feel how the dog feels.  Surely it shouldn’t take the brains of Einstein to realize frightening and bullying dogs probably doesn’t make them feel very good.  Why on earth don’t we just respect a dog as a dog and train him as if we are both human and humane?  Dog training is hardly rocket science after all.  Training comprises teaching dogs ESL (English as a Second Language), teaching dog’s human words for doggy behaviours and actions so that they understand how we would like them to act.  Let’s use our supposedly superior intellect to simply teach dogs what we would like them to do and then, to want to do what we would like them to do.
Training is all about communication, motivation, and building a good relationship. Training is really quite simple and a lot of fun.  Most important though, children must be taught how to gain a dog’s respect so let’s make sure that we use training methods that are suitable for all family members, user-friendly and dog-friendly techniques to create people-friendly dogs.

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Predatory Aggression In Dogs

Predatory aggression in dogsThe number of attacks made by dogs on humans and other pets is sadly on the increase.  Whether this is down to the owners lack of knowledge, lack of proper training, poor socialisation or bad breeding, there is one possible cause that appears to be over looked.  That of predatory aggression.

What Is Predatory Aggression?

It can be difficult at times as your dog snuggles up to you, looking at you with big, round brown eyes or bounds around you in a goofy way begging for attention that at one point in his/her development, your pet is descended from hunters.   

Every dog has some level of prey drive (the motivation to chase, catch and kill small furry or feathered creatures) because hunting and killing was a way of life for their ancestors and their only means for survival.  This is hard-wired behaviour that is still present in our dogs today.  It is important to remember that predatory aggression by dogs does not reflect a psychological problem and neither is the dog being vicious, malicious or vindictive.

Predation is a natural survival-related behaviour even though it may sometimes alarm or disgust us.  The entire predatory sequence displayed by all predators involves searching, stalking, chasing, catching, biting, killing and then eating.

The problem we have as dog owners is that predatory behaviour is not preceded by a significant mood change or threatening gestures.  This absence of warning signals plus the fact that killing is the natural end point for predatory behaviour is what makes it dangerous for target animals, children, cyclists, joggers or anything else that moves quickly.

In domesticating dogs, certain parts of this see-chase-grab-kill sequence has been diluted but never fully eliminated.  For example, the herding breeds are very strong chasers, but do not go for the bite-hold-kill as readily as other breeds. Terriers, on the other hand, will readily grab-bite and kill.  How many of you have seen your dog grab a toy then shake it’s head rapidly from side to side?  That innocent and sometimes comical act is in reality, the final phase of the predatory sequence, the kill.    

So despite domestication, dogs still have an instinctive desire to chase, grab, bite and kill things that look like prey.  Incidentally, this is why so many dogs like to chase a ball or play with tug toys etc.  In the case of the domesticated dog, predation is instinctive and not based on hunger as is the case in wild predators. 

The level of predatory drive depends on the individual dog and what it has been bred for.  Movement always starts the sequence and allowing a dog to chase down small animals or toys will strengthen that prey drive.  Predatory behaviour may be exhibited by dogs of any sex and age and dogs showing intent or becoming agitated by the movement or vocalisations of children or other pets need to be closely monitored.

There are some people who do not regard predatory aggression as a proper form of aggression given there is little mood change and because a dog that chases after, catches and kills a rabbit shows none of the affective signs associated with dominance or fear aggression.  As far as the dog is concerned, it is just business as usual. However, when viewed another way, it seems reasonable to me to classify predatory aggression along with other forms of aggression as it results in damage or destruction of another creature.

So, what constitutes prey?

You may have seen during springtime for instance, dogs or cats killing birds and upsetting wild rabbit nests.  Our response, should we witness this sort of behaviour often ranges from being horrified to dismissing the action as the animals natural instinct.  We rarely see it as a problem.  However, it does become a problem when this predatory drive is directed towards running children, cyclists, traffic or small dogs and cats.  For us these targets are not prey, but to the dog they move like prey, sound like prey, and look like prey, hence the danger.

The results of such cases of mistaken identity can range from annoying to painful and even life-threatening.  A dog exhibiting the predatory mode may slink up on their prey and, when within range, launch an attack.  They then accelerate towards their target, either nipping at heels or biting at calves or thighs, perhaps hanging on in an attempt to drag their prey to the ground.  Sometimes other dogs will be drawn in to the attack displaying “group” aggression.  When the subject is a young child who is attempting to run away, the results can be disastrous.

What makes this type of aggression dangerous is it cannot be trained, medicated or counter conditioned out of the dog.  You may have a dog who previously chased cats, who can now be commanded to stay or sit around a cat but they will still chase a cat down at some point especially if you are not around.  This aggression can be shocking to the owners as it manifests so suddenly and is directed to what we do not see as prey.  For the dog however, instinct dictates otherwise.

Risks of Canine Predation

Realistically, there is no real treatment for predatory aggression and the only sure way to control predatory aggression is 100% avoidance of the situations that put humans and animals at risk.  The sudden high arousal level, a fixed focus on the prey subject and difficulty distracting the dog, are all indicators of a poor prognosis.  Dogs that are born with a high prey drive and have it fine-tuned by experience will always be likely to display this behaviour under certain circumstances.  Quite simply, they cannot help themselves.  This means if your dog chases cats, it cannot live with a cat.  If small dogs are the prey, your dog cannot be around any small dogs, especially when out on walks. 

As previously mentioned, this behaviour is neither malicious nor vindictive but simply biologically driven and natural  though unacceptable and downright dangerous when expressed toward humans. It therefore remains the responsibility of dog owners to recognise and appreciate tendencies in their dog and to take precautions such as keeping the dog on a lead etc.

It is your responsibility as a dog owner to recognise that if your dog only comes back to you when there are no distractions then your dog does not have a reliable recall and therefore should not be off the lead until one is taught.  It is not enough if your dog attacks another animal or child to say “he/she has never done that before” or “he/she only wanted to play”.

Reward-based obedience training will increase owner control, but will not prevent predatory behaviour when the owner’s back is turned or when the owner is absent.